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SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

  • Introduction

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI), are illnesses that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, and others. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of intravenous (IV) drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding.

     
     
  • Common Sexually transmitted infections

  • Bacterial

    bullet  Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
    bullet  Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
    bullet  Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis)
    bullet   Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
    bullet   Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

     
     
  • Fungal

    bullet  Candidiasis

     
     
  • Viral

    bullet  Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus)—through venereal fluids.
    bullet  Herpes simplex (Herpes simplex virus 1, 2) skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without     visible blisters.
    bullet   HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)—venereal fluids, semen, breast milk, blood.
    bullet   HPV (Human Papillomavirus)—skin and mucosal contact.
    bullet   Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum virus MCV).

     
     
  • Parasites

    bullet  Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" or "pubic lice" (Pthirus pubis).
    bullet  Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei).

     
     
  • Protozoal

    bullet  Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis).

     
     
  • Prevention

    bullet Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes. Sexual health    progammes fight to promote the use of condoms and provide outreach for at-risk    communities.
    bullet The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body    parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. Proper use of condoms    reduces contact and risk. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some    disease transmission may occur even with a condom.
    bullet Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or    before resuming contact if a partner engaged in contact with someone else. Many    infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be    allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain    STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with    current medical procedures.