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SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), are illnesses that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, and others. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of intravenous (IV) drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding.

Bacterial

  • Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
  • Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
  • Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis)
  • Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
  • Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
  • Fungal

  • Candidiasis
  • Viral

  • Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus)- through venereal fluids.
  • Herpes simplex (Herpes simplex virus 1, 2) skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without visible blisters.
  • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)- venereal fluids, semen, breast milk, blood.
  • HPV (Human Papillomavirus)—skin and mucosal contact.
  • Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum virus MCV).
  • Parasites

  • Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" or "pubic lice" (Pthirus pubis).
  • Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei).
  • Protozoal

  • Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis).
  • Prevention

  • Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes. Sexual health progammes fight to promote the use of condoms and provide outreach for at-risk communities.
  • The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom.
  • Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or before resuming contact if a partner engaged in contact with someone else. Many infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures.
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