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Ebola Virus Disease

  • Ebola virus cause hemorrhagic fever-illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many cases, death. Ebola virus native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades.
    Ebola virus live in animal hosts, and humans can contract the viruses from infected animals. After the initial transmission ,the viruses can spread from person to person through contact with body fluids or contaminated needles.
    No drug has been approved to treat either virus. People diagnosed with Ebola virus receive supportive care and treatment for complications. Scientists are coming closer to developing vaccines for these deadly diseases.
    Signs and symptoms typically begin abruptly within five to ten days of infection with Ebola virus. Early signs and symptoms include:

    bullet Fever
    bullet Severe headache
    bullet Joint and muscle pain
    bullet Chills
    bullet Weakness

    Symptoms may include:

    bullet Nausea and vomiting
    bullet Diarrhea (may be bloody)
    bullet Red eyes
    bullet Raised rash
    bullet Chest pain and cough
    bullet Stomach pain
    bullet Severe weight loss
    bullet Bleeding, usually form the eyes, and bruising (people near death may bleed from other orifices, such as ears, nose and rectum)
    bullet Internal bleeding


    Ebola virus has been found in African monkeys, chimps and other nonhuman primates. A milder strain of Ebola has been discovered in monkeys and pigs in the Philippines.

  • Transmission from animals to humans

    Experts suspect that Ebola viruses is transmitted to humans through an infected animal’s bodily fluids. Examples include:
    bullet Blood. Butchering or eating infected animals can spread the viruses. . Scientists who have operated on infected animals as part of their research have also contracted the virus.
    bullet Waste products. Tourist in certain African caves and some underground mine workers have been infected with the possibly through contact with the feces or urine of infected bats.

  • Transmission from person to person

    Infected people typically don’t become contagious until they develop symptoms. Family members are often infected as they care for sick relatives or prepare the dead for burial.

    No antiviral medications have proved effective in treating infection .Supportive hospital care include:


    bullet Providing fluids
    bullet Maintaining blood pressure
    bullet Providing oxygen as needed
    bullet Replacing lost blood
    bullet Treating other infections that develop.

  • Prevention

    Prevention focuses on avoiding contact with the viruses. the following precautions can help Prevent infection and spread of Ebola.


    Avoid areas of known outbreaks. Before traveling to Africa, find out about current epidemics by checking the centers for Disease control and Prevention websites.

    Wash your hands frequently. As with other infectious diseases, one of the most important Preventive measures is frequent hand-washing .use soap and water, or alcohol-based hand rubs containing alcohol when soap and water aren’t available.

    Avoid bush meat. In developing countries, avoid buying or eating the wild animals, including nonhuman primates, sold in local markets.

    Avoid contact with infected people. in particular,caregives should Avoid contact with the person’s body fluids and tissues, including blood, semen, virginal secretions and saliva. People with Ebola are most contagious in the later stages of the disease.

    Follow infection – control procedures. If you are a health care worker, wear protective clothing ,such as gloves, masks, gowns and eye shields. Keep infection people isolated from others . Dispose of needles and sterilize other instruments.

    Don’t handle remains. The bodies of people who have died of Ebola disease are still contagious. Specially organized and trained teams should bury the remains, using appropriate safety equipment.